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Block and trust lists (Referrals)

Referral checks use lists of known good and bad shoppers to prevent fraudsters from making payments.

Don't use referral checks as strict block and trust lists. No shopper should be trusted, or blocked based on one list or rule. Instead, referral checks should add to the risk score and work with other checks to either clear or block a transaction.

While you configure risk rules at a merchant account level, referral checks are aggregated at the company level. This means you can provide a setting once to apply it to all merchant accounts.

Amex Scheme Blocked Cards referral

Triggered when a card is blocked through a list provided by American Express. You can block this transaction before it can be authorised.

BIN attack

Triggers when a BIN has a sudden high rate of payments with CVC-mismatches compared to the past week.

Block BINs that are known to be under attack. You can opt to block BINs that are currently showing suspicious activity. These BINs are blocked for a certain amount of time only.

Configuration options

  • Lists BINs auto-blocked by fraud detector.
  • The number of referrals shown is limited to 1000.

Business Hours to Delivery

Make block and trust lists based on how close the transaction is to the delivery date (in business hours). This can be used by airlines to calculate how far the transaction is to the takeoff time or by e-commerce merchants to correlate with express shipping.

You must provide the delivery time value in the payment request.

This risk rule is based on the configured business hours and is similar to time to delivery check.

Configuration Options

  • You must indicate active hours during the day. 
  • You can submit thresholds in day, hour, or minute format. 
  • Each value can be given a specific scoring, negative to give it a trust value and positive to give it a block value.
  • In situations in which two different values match, the one with the highest score triggers.

Card/Bank Account Number Non-Fraud Referral List

This referral list contains all ELV and Bank Account bank account numbers which had been used in chargeback transactions where the chargeback had a non-fraudulent reason (ex. Insufficient Funds). This is a global list across Adyen's entire network.

Friendly fraud is when good shoppers use their own bank account, but chargeback even when their goods have been delivered. These fraudsters range from one-time offenders who may have been unhappy with their product to consistent abusers of their ability to chargeback on legitimate transactions.  This risk rule is focused on finding friendly fraudsters and highlighting that they have committed chargebacks on Adyen's network in the past.

Card/Bank Account Number Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on bank and card numbers. If the number is on your block list, or on the global block list, the risk rule fires. To prevent this, add the number to your trust list.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit credit card numbers, SEPA Direct-Debit numbers, and ELV numbers. 
  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • Payment instruments can be added in the configuration settings. You can also check if a value is in either referral list. 

Carte Bancaire Scheme Blocked Cards Referral List

Adyen received up-to-date lists of cards that have been blocked by Carte Bancaire, a local scheme available in France. This allows merchants to block the transaction prior to sending an authorization request.

CUP Scheme Blocked Cards referral

This risk check initiates when a card was blocked through the list provided by Union Pay. You can block this transaction before it can be authorised.

Email Domain Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the domain of the provided shopper email address.

The merchant must be submitting a shopper email value in the payment request for this check to perform correctly.

It is common for fraudsters to use certain domains which allow them to create many email addresses at a time. This check can be used to combat that, as well as to trust very high trust domains.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

Issuer referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the issuing bank of the card or bank account number.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit credit card numbers and ELV numbers. 
  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • A minimum of four digits is required for cards, however, more can be accepted to narrow to a specific BIN range. 

Issuing Country referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block lists based on issuing country of the card.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit countries individually.
  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • There is currently no ability to create a trust list for countries. 

Payment Method Check

This check can be used to apply higher or lower risk scores to transactions based on the payment method used.

Some payment methods have higher or lower correlations with fraud. This check allows merchants to affect the risk score based on the payment method behavior that have noted with their fraudsters and good users. 

Configuration Options

  • You can submit scores for any of their configured payment methods (note that payment methods not currently being used are not on the list).
  • Both positive and negative values can be added accordingly. For example, in the example below Paypal payments receive a score of -50, lowering the fraud score. 

PayPal Account Creation Blocked Country

This risk check initiates when the country in which the shopper's PayPal account was created matches the check-specific referral list of blocked countries. 

Configuration options

If you wish to assign a fraud score to all shoppers located in a country, you can add them here. Some countries which have a very high fraud rating have fixed entries in the list.

Add a country

  1. Select a country from the drop down . 
  2. Enter a reason for the block and click Submit.
    The new addition will be listed underneath the form.

Remove a country

  1. Locate the country in the list of blocked countries.
  2. Under the Action column, click .

PayPal ID Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the domain of the provided shopper PayPal ID.

The merchant should submit a PayPal ID value in the payment request for this check to work properly.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

Persistent Cookie referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the specific persistent cookie of the shopper. Note that the merchant must be submitting a cookie value in the payment request for this check to work properly.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

Note that the provided value must be an exact match of the cookie string contained in the payment request.

Phone Number Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the domain of the provided shopper phone number.

The merchant must be submitting a shopper phone number value in the payment request for this check to work properly.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

Shopper Account Age check

This check increases or decreases the fraud score depending on shopper account creation date. The shopper age can either be provided as part of the payment request (via the API) or the check can use the oldest transaction within the shopper’s ShopperDNA network.

Configuration options

  • There are three different configuration types for this check:

    • Use merchant-provided creation date: This uses the creation date provided as part of the transaction request. See Provide data for risk rules for more information.
    • Use the date of the oldest ShopperDNA transaction: This uses the timestamp of the oldest transaction in the ShopperDNA network of the shopper.
    • Use the oldest of the two: This uses the oldest of the two above, when applicable.
  • Merchants can establish thresholds of age in days, hours, and minutes. Both positive and negative scores can be provided.

Shopper Address referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the specific address of the shopper, either shipping or billing. The Shopper Address must have an exact match on the country, postal code and house number, so it is imperative that these fields are properly submitted in the payment request.

See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • A score can be provided for partial matches in which not all three elements of the address match. 
  • Email addresses can also be provided via CSV upload (max 1,000 per upload). The CSV should have the following six columns (with no header):

    • street 
    • house number
    • city
    • postal code
    • state 
    • country code (two letters)
  • The wildcard (<all>) can be supplied for a field to accept any value in that field. For example, '<all> <all>, 91234 <all>, <all>, FRANCE'  triggers on any address in France with the postal code 91234.

Shopper Email referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the specific email address of the shopper. Note that these emails must be an exact match or utilize a wildcard. See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • Email addresses can also be provided via CSV upload (max 1,000 per upload). 
  • Wildcards (* and ?) can be used to simplify matching. For example by using test*, you will block names like 'test user'. 

Shopper IP originates from high-risk country

This referral list allows the merchant to make block lists based on the shopper's IP country. This check comes with some countries included by default (ex. Nigeria). See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

Note that IP addresses are not guaranteed indicators of a user's true country. Proxies and VPNs allow for fraudsters to obfuscate their true location. This check should be paired with the use of the shopper using an anonymous proxy check.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit countries individually.
  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • There is currently no ability to create a trust list for countries. 

Shopper IP referral list

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the specific IP address of the shopper. See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit IP addresses in either v4 or v6 format.
  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • IP addresses can also be provided via CSV upload (max 1,000 per upload). 

Shopper Name referral list

This referral list allows you to block and trust transactions based on the full name of the shopper. This check analyses both the card holder name field and the passenger name field (if provided). The name must be an exact match, and both a first and last name must be provided. See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting. 
  • Names can also be provided via CSV upload (max 1,000 per upload). 

Shopper Reference Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the specific Shopper Reference of the shopper. Note that the merchant must be submitting a shopper reference value in the payment request for this check to work properly. See How do I add shoppers to a block or trust list? to know more.

The shopper reference is a unique identifier for a shopper, usually associated with their login identity. This allows the tracking of users across multiple sessions. It is common practice to establish a unique shopper reference for each guest transaction when the transactions are allowed without logging in.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

The provided value must be an exact match of the shopper reference string contained in the payment request.

Social Security Number Referral List

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on the domain of the provided shopper social security number.

The merchant should submit a social security number value in the payment request for this check to work properly. This check works on any provided social security-type number, such as with Brazilian CPF.

Configuration Options

  • The score associated with the block list is established by the score associated with the rule in the main rule menu. 
  • The score associated with the trust list is established as a sub-setting.

Time To Delivery Check

This referral list allows the merchant to make block and trust lists based on how close the transaction is to the delivery date. This can be used by airlines to calculate how far the transaction is to the takeoff time or by e-commerce merchants to correlate with express shipping. Note that merchants must provide the delivery time value in the payment request.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit thresholds in day, hour, or minute format. 
  • Each value can be given a specific scoring, negative to give it a trust value and positive to give it a block value.
  • In situations in which two different values match, the one with the highest score will trigger.

Transaction Amount Check

This check can be used to apply higher risk scores to transactions based on the transaction amount.

It is common for fraudsters to focus on higher-priced goods, to maximize their gains. This check can be used to either apply increased scrutiny to higher-priced goods or to focus specifically on the average-transaction-value that correlates with chargebacks.

Configuration Options

  • You can submit thresholds in any currency.
  • In situations in which two different values match, the one with the highest score triggers.

Amounts should be provided in minor units.