A chargeback is initiated by the issuing bank on behalf of a cardholder to collect funds back.
It can be preceded by a Request for Information (RFI), also called a Retrieval Request, for example when the cardholder does not recognize the charge.
A chargeback can also be directly filed (without an RFI) if the bank has enough information to validate the cardholder's claim. For more information on the timeframe to exercise and defend a chargeback, see Defense timeframes.
For specific per-issuer chargeback guidelines, see the following topics: