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Cardholder Verification Methods

A Cardholder Verification Method (CVM) is used to verify that a credit card being used in a purchase is in the possession of its owner. 

CVM lists

The CVM list contains amount thresholds and includes three elements per CVM:

  • CVM code: What to do when a CVM fails, either proceed with the next one or fail the CVM process.
  • CVM type: The actual CVM to be performed, such as PIN verification.
  • CVM condition: The conditions that determine when the CVM type is applicable. For example, Always enforce Online PIN for ATM withdrawals.

CVM list live example

The following CVM list is taken from a Mastercard of type "mcredit".

The amount thresholds are not used. The first CVM is only used for ATMs and Cashback transactions.

All other CVMs are used if the terminal supports them. For an Adyen terminal, all CVMs are supported and the first available one in the list would be selected – CVM 2 Enciphered PIN verification performed by ICC.

Amount Thresholds

  • Amount X: 0
  • Amount Y: 0

Cardholder Verification Method 1

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM type: Enciphered PIN verified online.
  • CVM condition: If cash or cashback (includes quasi-cash).

Cardholder Verification Method 2

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, proceed with the next CVM.
  • CVM type: Enciphered PIN verification performed by ICC.
  • CVM condition: If terminal supports the CVM.

Cardholder Verification Method 3

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM type: Plaintext PIN verification performed by ICC.
  • CVM condition: If terminal supports the CVM.

Cardholder Verification Method 4

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM type: Enciphered PIN verified online.
  • CVM condition: If terminal supports the CVM.

Cardholder Verification Method 5

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM type: Signature (paper)
  • CVM condition: If terminal supports the CVM.

Cardholder Verification Method 6

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM type: No CVM required.
  • CVM condition: If terminal supports the CVM.

CVM list test example

Adyen has various TEST cards with "applications" programmed onto it that each simulate a card with a unique brand, language, country, and currency. In combination with a specific CVM list, that allows you to test a wide variety of scenarios with a single physical card (see POS test cards).

In your test Customer Area, when you view the transaction details for test payments made with your Adyen TEST card, you can also see the applicable Cardholder Verification Method List. This uses Amount Thresholds, which is not common for LIVE cards but very useful for testing purposes. You can trigger different CVMs by varying the amount in combination with currency conditions from the CVM list.

As an example, the CVM list for one of Adyen's TEST card application has the following elements:

Amount Thresholds

  • Amount X: 10000
  • Amount Y: 20000

Cardholder Verification Method 1

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, proceed with the next CVM.
  • CVM type: Enciphered PIN verified online
  • CVM condition: If transaction is in the currency of the test card application and is over Y value.

Cardholder Verification Method 2

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, proceed with the next CVM.
  • CVM type: Enciphered PIN verification performed by ICC.
  • CVM condition: If transaction is in the currency of the test card application and is over X value.

Cardholder Verification Method 3

  • CVM code: If this CVM is unsuccessful, fail cardholder verification.
  • CVM Type: Signature (paper).
  • CVM condition: Always.

If the test card application you're using has currency code EUR and the transaction is for GBP 95 there are two options:

  • The shopper accepts DCC and is charged ~ EUR 135,-. This means CVM 2 is selected because EUR 135 over Amount X and the transaction – after accepting DCC - is in the currency of the test card application.
  • The shopper rejects (or is not offered DCC). This means CVM 3 is selected because the transaction is not in the currency of the test card application and CVM 3 'Always' applied.

CVM results

The resulting CVM reported to the cash register is a hexadecimal representation of the CVM used to verify the card holder.
Example: 440702. The second character in this string represents the CVM. The following table shows what each possible value of the second character means.

Value Definition
1 Offline plaintext PIN
2 Online PIN
3 Offline plaintext PIN and signature
4 Offline enciphered PIN
5 Offline enciphered PIN and signature
E Signature
F No CVM performed

Contactless/NFC Transactions and CVM

Contactless or NFC transactions are subject to the following configuration options:

  • Contactless CVM limit: an amount (minor units) above which the terminal will require a CVM.
  • Contactless currency : currency for which contactless transactions can be performed, equal to the country in which the store is located.
  • Contactless floorlimit: floorlimit specifically for contactless transactions.
  • Contactless maximum amount: maximum amount for which a NFC transaction can be performed. If the amount is higher and the terminal general maximum allows it the transaction will start without activating the NFC reader.

If the transaction amount is higher than the contactless CVM limit and a NFC capable card is tapped, the terminal will indicate to the card a CVM is required. The card will indicate whether a signature or PIN is required. For PIN this always means an Online PIN is the actual CVM. This implies a NFC transaction over the CVM limit, requiring PIN, cannot be processed offline.

CVM limits for each country and Application Identifier

For amounts above the CVM limit the shopper will be prompted for their PIN or signature during a contactless transaction. The countries listed refer to the country of the merchant. If the merchant country is not provided, the default values are used.

        CVM Limits      
Country Code American Express China Unionpay Diners Club Discover JCB Mastercard Visa
Default EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
AD EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00
AE AED 25.00 AED 300.00 AED 25.00 AED 25.00 AED 25.00 AED 25.00 AED 25.00
AT EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
AU AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00 AUD 100.00
AZ AZN 20.00 AZN 25.00 AZN 10.00 AZN 10.00 AZN 0.00 AZN 50.00 AZN 20.00
BE EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00
BG BGN 25.00 BGN 125.00 BGN 25.00 BGN 25.00 BGN 25.00 BGN 25.00 BGN 25.00
BN BND 25.00 BND 100.00 BND 25.00 BND 25.00 BND 25.00 BND 25.00 BND 25.00
BR BRL 50.00 BRL 50.00 BRL 25.00 BRL 25.00 BRL 25.00 BRL 50.00 BRL 50.00
CA CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00 CAD 100.00
CH CHF 40.00 CHF 75.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 40.00
CK NZD 25.00 NZD 35.00 NZD 25.00 NZD 25.00 NZD 25.00 NZD 25.00 NZD 25.00
CY EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00
CZ CZK 500.00 CZK 1600.00 CZK 500.00 CZK 500.00 CZK 500.00 CZK 500.00 CZK 500.00
DE EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 50.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 50.00
DK DKK 200.00 DKK 450.00 DKK 200.00 DKK 200.00 DKK 200.00 DKK 200.00 DKK 200.00
EE EUR 20.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00
ES EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00
FI EUR 50.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 50.00 EUR 50.00 EUR 0.00 EUR 50.00 EUR 50.00
FJ FJD 25.00 FJD 50.00 FJD 25.00 FJD 25.00 FJD 25.00 FJD 25.00 FJD 25.00
FR EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 30.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 30.00
GB GBP 30.00 GBP 60.00 GBP 25.00 GBP 25.00 GBP 30.00 GBP 25.00 GBP 30.01
GI GBP 20.00 GBP 25.00 GIP 20.00 GBP 20.00 GIP 20.00 GIP 20.00 GBP 20.00
GR EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
HK HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00 HKD 1000.00
HR HRK 100.00 HRK 450.00 HRK 100.00 HRK 100.00 HRK 100.00 HRK 100.00 HRK 100.00
HU HUF 5000.00 HUF 18000.00 HUF 5000.00 HUF 5000.00 HUF 5000.00 HUF 5000.00 HUF 5000.00
ID IDR 25.00 IDR 500000 IDR 25.00 IDR 25.00 IDR 25.00 IDR 25.00 IDR 25.00
IE EUR 30.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 30.00 EUR 30.00 EUR 30.00 EUR 30.00 EUR 30.00
IN INR 25.00 INR 2000.00 INR 25.00 INR 25.00 INR 25.00 INR 25.00 INR 25.00
IS ISK 4200.00 ISK 7500.00 ISK 4200.00 ISK 4200.00 ISK 0.00 ISK 5000.00 ISK 3000.00
IT EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
JP JPY 25.00 JPY 15000 JPY 25.00 JPY 25.00 JPY 25.00 JPY 25.00 JPY 25.00
KH KHR 25.00 USD 50.00 KHR 25.00 KHR 25.00 KHR 25.00 KHR 25.00 KHR 25.00
KI AUD 25.00 AUD 50.00 AUD 25.00 AUD 25.00 AUD 25.00 AUD 25.00 AUD 25.00
KR KRW 25.00 KRW 50000 KRW 25.00 KRW 25.00 KRW 25.00 KRW 25.00 KRW 25.00
KZ KZT 25.00 KZT 10000.00 KZT 25.00 KZT 25.00 KZT 25.00 KZT 25.00 KZT 25.00
LA LAK 25.00 LAK 400000.00 LAK 25.00 LAK 25.00 LAK 25.00 LAK 25.00 LAK 25.00
LI EUR 25.00 CHF 25.00 CHF 40.00 EUR 20.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 40.00 CHF 20.00
LK LKR 25.00 LKR 5000.00 LKR 25.00 LKR 25.00 LKR 25.00 LKR 25.00 LKR 25.00
LT EUR 10.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00
LU EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
LV EUR 10.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00
MC EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00
MD EUR 20.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 MDL 0.00 MDL 500.00 EUR 20.00
MM MMK 25.00 MMK 70000.00 MMK 25.00 MMK 25.00 MMK 25.00 MMK 25.00 MMK 25.00
MN MNT 25.00 MNT 10000.00 MNT 25.00 MNT 25.00 MNT 25.00 MNT 25.00 MNT 25.00
MO MOP 25.00 MOP 1000.00 MOP 25.00 MOP 25.00 MOP 25.00 MOP 25.00 MOP 25.00
MT EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00
MV MVR 25.00 MVR 750.00 MVR 25.00 MVR 25.00 MVR 25.00 MVR 25.00 MVR 25.00
MY MYR 25.00 MYR 500.00 MYR 25.00 MYR 25.00 MYR 25.00 MYR 25.00 MYR 25.00
NL EUR 25.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00
NO NOK 0.00 NOK 600.00 NOK 200.00 NOK 200.00 NOK 0.00 NOK 400.00 NOK 400.00
NZ NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00 NZD 80.00
PG PGK 25.00 PGK 50.00 PGK 25.00 PGK 25.00 PGK 25.00 PGK 25.00 PGK 25.00
PL PLN 50.00 PLN 250.00 PLN 50.00 PLN 50.00 PLN 50.00 PLN 50.00 PLN 50.00
PT EUR 25.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00
RO RON 100.00 RON 250.00 RON 100.00 RON 100.00 RON 100.00 RON 100.00 RON 100.00
RU RUB 25.00 RUB 1000.00 RUB 25.00 RUB 25.00 RUB 25.00 RUB 25.00 RUB 25.00
SB SBD 25.00 SBD 90.00 SBD 25.00 SBD 25.00 SBD 25.00 SBD 25.00 SBD 25.00
SE SEK 350.00 SEK 650.00 SEK 200.00 SEK 200.00 SEK 200.00 SEK 200.00 SEK 200.00
SG SGD 200.00 SGD 200.00 SGD 100.00 SGD 200.00 SGD 100.00 SGD 100.00 SGD 200.00
SI EUR 15.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 15.00 EUR 15.00 EUR 15.00 EUR 15.00 EUR 15.00
SK EUR 20.00 EUR 25.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00 EUR 20.00
TH THB 25.00 THB 5000.00 THB 25.00 THB 25.00 THB 25.00 THB 25.00 THB 25.00
TL USD 25.00 USD 25.00 USD 25.00 USD 25.00 USD 25.00 USD 25.00 USD 25.00
TO TOP 25.00 TOP 40.00 TOP 25.00 TOP 25.00 TOP 25.00 TOP 25.00 TOP 25.00
TR TRY 25.00 TRY 90.00 TRY 25.00 TRY 25.00 TRY 25.00 TRY 25.00 TRY 25.00
TW TWD 25.00 TWD 3000.00 TWD 25.00 TWD 25.00 TWD 25.00 TWD 25.00 TWD 25.00
UA EUR 20.00 EUR 60.00 EUR 10.00 EUR 10.00 UAH 25.00 UAH 500.00 EUR 20.00
US USD 25.00 USD 50.00 USD 50.00 USD 25.00 USD 50.00 USD 50.00 USD 25.00
UY UYU 25.00 UYU 25.00 UYU 0.00 UYU 0.00 UYU 0.00 UYU 1600.00 UYU 0.00
VN VND 25.00 VND 2000000 VND 25.00 VND 25.00 VND 25.00 VND 25.00 VND 25.00
VU VUV 25.00 VUV 2000 VUV 25.00 VUV 25.00 VUV 25.00 VUV 25.00 VUV 25.00
WS WST 25.00 WST 60.00 WST 25.00 WST 25.00 WST 25.00 WST 25.00 WST 25.00